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NCERT Exemplar Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts Solutions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, bases and salts covers all the important questions and answers as well as advanced level questions. It will teach students about the chemical properties of aids, bases, salts, common properties of acids and bases and reaction between acids and bases.

The NCERT Exemplar solutions for class 10 science is very important for board exams. NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts is provided by our experts. They prepared the best solutions which help the students in understanding the problems in an easy way. This chapters also covers the other topics like neutralization reactions, chemicals obtained from salts, reactivity series, metallic oxides and non-metallic oxides.


Chapter Name

Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts

Book Title

NCERT Exemplar for Class 10 Science

Related Study

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Revision Notes for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts
  • MCQ for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Important Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts

Topics Covered

  • MCQ
  • Short Answers Questions
  • Long Answers Questions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts Class 10 Science

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What happens when a solution of an acid is mixed with a solution of a base in a test tube?
(i) The temperature of the solution increases
(ii) The temperature of the solution decreases
(iii) The temperature of the solution remains the same
(iv) Salt formation takes place
(a) (i) only
(b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iv)

Solution

(d) (i) and (iv)

Neutralization reaction takes place when acid is mixed with a solution of base. Neutralization is an exothermic reaction which results in the formation salt.


2. An aqueous solution turns red litmus solution blue. Excess addition of which of the following solution would reverse the change?
(a) Baking powder
(b) Lime
(c) Ammonium hydroxide solution
(d) Hydrochloric acid

Solution

(d) Hydrochloric acid

The solution is basic in nature if it turns red litmus to blue. This effect can be neutralized by adding an acid.


3. During the preparation of hydrogen chloride gas on a humid day, the gas is usually passed through the guard tube containing calcium chloride. The role of calcium chloride taken in the guard tube is to
(a) absorb the evolved gas
(b) moisten the gas
(c) absorb moisture from the gas
(d) absorb Cl– ions from the evolved gas

Solution

(c) absorb moisture from the gas

Calcium has property to absorb moisture hence it is a good dehydrating agent. This makes it usable as a desiccant to dry gases and hydrocarbons in the industries.


4. Which of the following salts does not contain water of crystallisation ? 
(a) Blue vitriol 
(b) Baking soda 
(c) Washing soda 

(d) Gypsum

Solution

(b) Baking soda 

Baking sodas is white amorphous powder whereas other salts given are crystalline in nature.


5. Sodium carbonate is a basic salt because it is a salt of
(a) strong acid and strong base
(b) weak acid and weak base
(c) strong acid and weak base
(d) weak acid and strong base

Solution

(d) weak acid and strong base

Weak acid and strong base forms a strong salt. In this case sodium is a strong base and carbonate is a weak acid.

6. Calcium phosphate is present in tooth enamel. Its nature is 
(a) basic 
(b) acidic 
(c) neutral 
(d) amphoteric

Solution

(a) basic

Calcium phosphate contains phosphate ions which are strong bases. Phosphate ions form a strong salt. Therefore, calcium phosphate is basic in nature.


7. A sample of soil is mixed with water and allowed to settle. The clear supernatant solution turns the pH paper yellowish - orange. Which of the following would change the colour of this pH paper to greenish-blue?
(a) Lemon juice
(b) Vinegar
(c) Common salt
(d) An antacid

Solution

(d) An antacid

Sample solution turn pH paper yellowish-orange. This confirms the acidic nature of the sample. To change the color to greenish-blue we have to add an antacid.

8. Which of the following gives the correct increasing order of acidic strength
(a) Water < Acetic acid < Hydrochloric acid
(b) Water < Hydrochloric acid< Acetic acid
(c) Acetic acid< Water < Hydrochloric acid
(d) Hydrochloric acid< Water<Acetic acid
Solution
(a) Water < Acetic acid < Hydrochloric acid

In pure form water is neutral. Acetic acid is weak acid as it is an organic acid whereas hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.


9. If a few drops of a concentrated acid accidentally spills over the hand of a student, what should be done?
(a) Wash the hand with saline solution
(b) Wash the hand immediately with plenty of water and apply a paste of sodium hydrogencarbonate
(c) After washing with plenty of water apply solution of sodium hydroxide on the hand
(d) Neutralise the acid with a strong alkali

Solution

(b) Wash the hand immediately with plenty of water and apply a paste of sodium hydrogencarbonate

Washing the hand with plenty of water will reduce the concentration of the acid. Further traces of the acid can be neutralized by applying a paste of Hydrogen carbonate which is basic. NaOH is also a base but it is corrosive in nature and hence should not be used.


10. Sodium hydrogencarbonate when added to acetic acid evolves a gas. Which of the following statements are true about the gas evolved?
(i) It turns lime water milky
(ii) It extinguishes a burning splinter
(iii) It dissolves in a solution of sodium hydroxide
(iv) It has a pungent odour 

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(d) (i) and (iv)

Solution

(a) (i) and (ii)

Carbon dioxide gas is evolved when Sodium hydrogen carbonate reacts with acetic acid. Carbon dioxide gas turns lime water milky and extinguishes a burning splinter.


11. Common salt besides being used in kitchen can also be used as the raw material for making
(i) washing soda
(ii) bleaching powder
(iii) baking soda
(iv) slaked lime 

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (i), (ii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii)
(d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

Solution

(a) (i) and (ii)


12. One of the constituents of baking powder is sodium hydrogencarbonate, the other constituent is
(a) hydrochloric acid
(b) tartaric acid
(c) acetic acid
(d) sulphuric acid

Solution

(b) tartaric acid

A mild edible acid along with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate is used to prepare baking powder. Therefore acetic acid or citric acid can also be used in place of tartaric acid.


13. To protect tooth decay we are advised to brush our teeth regularly. The nature of the tooth paste commonly used is
(a) acidic
(b) neutral
(c) basic
(d) corrosive

Solution

(c) basic

Because of bacterial activity in mouth, teeth will be acidic in nature. To neutralize the acid, toothpaste must be basic in nature.


14. Which of the following statements is correct about an aqueous solution of an acid and of a base?
(i) Higher the pH, stronger the acid
(ii) Higher the pH, weaker the acid
(iii) Lower the pH, stronger the base
(iv) Lower the pH, weaker the base

(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

Solution

On a pH scale, for acids pH is below 7. Lower the pH, stronger will be acid and similarly bases are those whose pH is more than 7. Higher the pH stronger will be the base.


15. The pH of the gastric juices released during digestion is
(a) less than 7
(b) more than 7
(c) equal to 7
(d) equal to 0

Solution

(a) less than 7

The pH must be below 7 to ensure easy breakdown of food particles. Thus the pH of stomach juices is usually 3.


16. Which of the following phenomena occur, when a small amount of acid is added to water?
(i) Ionisation
(ii) Neutralisation
(iii) Dilution
(iv) Salt formation 

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

Solution

(b) (i) and (iii)


17. Which one of the following can be used as an acid–base indicator by a visually impared student?
(a) Litmus
(b) Turmeric
(c) Vanilla essence
(d) Petunia leaves

Solution

(c) Vanilla essence

Vanilla essence can be used as an olfactory indicator hence it can be used as acid base indicator by visually impaired students.


18. Which of the following substance will not give carbon dioxide on treatment with dilute acid?
(a) Marble
(b) Limestone
(c) Baking soda
(d) Lime 

Solution

(d) Lime 

Marble, limestone and baking soda, all have carbonates and thus produces CO2 gas. Lime on the other hand contains hydroxide which will not produce CO2.


19. Which of the following is acidic in nature?
(a) Lime juice
(b) Human blood
(c) Lime water
(d) Antacid

Solution

(a) Lime juice 

Lime juice contains citric acid in it. Therefore it is acidic in nature.


20. In an attempt to demonstrate electrical conductivity through an electrolyte, the following apparatus (Figure 2.1) was set up. Which among the following statement(s) is(are) correct?
(i) Bulb will not glow because electrolyte is not acidic
(ii) Bulb will glow because NaOH is a strong base and furnishes ions for conduction.
(iii) Bulb will not glow because circuit is incomplete
(iv) Bulb will not glow because it depends upon the type of electrolytic solution 

(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) only
(d) (iv) only

Solution
(c) (ii) only

21. Which of the following is used for dissolution of gold?
(a) Hydrochloric acid
(b) Sulphuric acid
(c) Nitric acid
(d) Aqua regia
Solution
(d) Aqua regia

Gold is a noble metal and thus it will not react with strong acids. Therefor eaqua regia which is a mixture of Nitric and Hydrochloric acid in the ratio 1:3 is used for dissolution of gold.


22. Which of the following is not a mineral acid?
(a) Hydrochloric acid
(b) Citric acid
(c) Sulphuric acid
(d) Nitric acid
Solution
(b) Citric acid 
Citric acid is an organic acid. 

23. Which among the following is not a base?
(a) NaOH
(b) KOH
(c) NH4OH
(d) C2H5OH

Solution

(d) C2H5OH

C2H5OH is an alcohol not a base. 


24. Which of the following statements is not correct?
(a) All metal carbonates react with acid to give a salt, water and carbon dioxide
(b) All metal oxides react with water to give salt and acid
(c) Some metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen
(d) Some non metal oxides react with water to form an acid

Solution

(b) All metal oxides react with water to give salt and acid 

Metal oxides are basic in nature therefore they give alkaline solution when dissolved in water.


25. Match the chemical substances given in Column (A) with their appropriate application given in Column (B)

Column (A)

Column (B)

(A) Bleaching powder

(i) Preparation of glass

(B) Baking soda

(ii) Production of H2 and Cl2

(C) Washing soda

(iii) Decolourisation

(D) Sodium chloride

(iv) Antacid

(a) A—(ii), B—(i), C—(iv), D—(iii)
(b) A—(iii), B—(ii), C—(iv), D—(i)
(c) A—(iii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(ii)
(d) A—(ii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(iii)

Solution

(c) A—(iii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(ii)


26. Equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions of same concentration are mixed and the pH of the resulting solution is checked with a pH paper. What would be the colour obtained? (You may use colour guide given in Figure 2.2

(a) Red
(b) Yellow
(c) Yellowish green
(d) Blue
Solution

(c) Yellowish green

Neutralization reaction takes place between HCL and NaOH solution. Hence pH will remain neutral that is in the yellowish green zone of pH paper.


27. Which of the following is(are) true when HCl (g) is passed through water?
(i) It does not ionise in the solution as it is a covalent compound.
(ii) It ionises in the solution
(iii) It gives both hydrogen and hydroxyl ion in the solution
(iv) It forms hydronium ion in the solution due to the combination of hydrogen ion with water molecule.
(a) (i) only
(b) (iii) only
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (iv)
Solution
(c) (ii) and (iv) 
HCl ionizes completely in water to produce Hydrogen as HCl is a strong acid. Hydrogen thus produced combine with water molecules to give Hydronium ions. 

28. Which of the following statements is true for acids?
(a) Bitter and change red litmus to blue
(b) Sour and change red litmus to blue
(c) Sour and change blue litmus to red
(d) Bitter and change blue litmus to red
Solution
(c) Sour and change blue litmus to red 

29. Which of the following are present in a dilute aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid ?
(a) H3O+ + Cl-
(b) H3O+ + OH-
(c) Cl- + OH-
(d) unionised HCl 
Solution
(a) H3O+ + Cl-
Acid produces hydrogen which combines with water molecule to produce Hydronium ions.

30. Identify the correct representation of reaction occurring during chloralkali process
(a) 2NaCl(l) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(l) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
(b) 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(aq) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
(c) 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(aq) + H2(aq)
(d) 2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
Solution
(d) 2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)

Short Answer Questions 

 
31. Match the acids given in Column (A) with their correct source given in Column (B) 

Column (A)

Column (B)

(a) Lactic acid

(i) Tomato

(b) Acetic acid

(ii) Lemon

(c) Citric acid

(iii) Vinegar

(d) Oxalic acid

(iv) Curd 

Solution

Column (A)

Column (B)

(a) Lactic acid

(i) Tomato

(b) Acetic acid

(ii) Lemon

(c) Citric acid

(iii) Vinegar

(d) Oxalic acid

(iv) Curd 


32. Match the important chemicals given in Column (A) with the chemical formulae given in Coumn (B)

Column (A)

Column (B)

(a) Plaster of Paris

(i) Ca(OH)2

(b) Gypsum

(ii) CaSO4. ½ H2O

(c) Bleaching Powder

(iii) CaSO4.  2H2O

(d) Slaked Lime

(iv) CaOCl2

Solution 

Column (A)

Column (B)

(a) Plaster of Paris

(ii) CaSO4. ½ H2O     

(b) Gypsum

(iii) CaSO4.  2H2

(c) Bleaching Powder

(iv) CaOCl2            

(d) Slaked Lime

(i) Ca(OH)2


33. What will be the action of the following substances on litmus paper? Dry HCl gas, Moistened NH3 gas, Lemon juice, Carbonated soft drink, Curd, Soap Solution.
Solution
  • Dry HCI gas: It will show no effect on litmus paper as no ionization will occur in gaseous state.
  • Moistened NH3 gas: It is alkaline in nature so red litmus will turn blue.
  • Lemon Juice: It contains citric acid therefore it turns blue litmus to red.
  • Carbonated soft drinks: They have carbonic acid which is a weak acid and can turns blue litmus to red.
  • Curd: It contains lactic acid so blue litmus will turn red.
  • Soap solution: They are alkaline in nature and can turn red litmus to blue.

34. Name the acid present in ant sting and give its chemical formula. Also give the common method to get relief from the discomfort caused by the ant sting.
Solution
Methanoic acid (formic acid)is present in ant sting. The chemical formula is HCOOH. One should apply any available basic salt e.g., baking soda (NaHCO3) on it to get relief.

35. What happens when nitric acid is added to egg shell? 
Solution

When nitric acid is added to it, carbon dioxide gas is evolved as egg shells contain calcium carbonate.
The reaction can be given as:
CaCO3 + 2HNO3 → Ca (NO3)2 + H2O + CO


36. A student prepared solutions of (i) an acid and (ii) a base in two separate beakers. She forgot to label the solutions and litmus paper is not available in the laboratory. Since both the solutions are colourless, how will she distinguish between the two?
Solution

Student can use chemical indicator like phenolphthalein or natural indicators like turmeric, china rose etc.


37. How would you distinguish between baking powder and washing soda by heating?
Solution

COis released when we heat baking powder. This can be confirmed by passing evolved gas into lime water which will turn milky. COis not released when washing soda is heated.


38. Salt A commonly used in bakery products on heating gets converted into another salt B which itself is used for removal of hardness of water and a gas C is evolved. The gas C when passed through lime water, turns it milky. Identify A, B and C.
Solution
Baking powder (NaHCO3), salt A is commonly used in bakery products. On heating it forms sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), B and CO2 gas, C is evolved. When CO2 gas is passed through lime water it forms calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is slightly soluble in water making it milky.
A — NaHCO3
B — Na2CO3
C — CO2 gas

39. In one of the industrial processes used for manufacture of sodium hydroxide, a gas X is formed as by product. The gas X reacts with lime water to give a compound Y which is used as a bleaching agent in chemical industry. Identify X and Y giving the chemical equation of the reactions involved. 
Solution

In the manufacture of sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas and chlorine gas (X) are formed as by–products. Calcium oxychloride (bleaching powder) Y is formed when chlorine gas (X) reacts with lime water. The reactions are:
2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
X is Cl2(Chlorine gas)
Ca (OH)2(s) + Cl2(g) → CaOCl2(s) + H2O
Y is Calcium oxychloride (bleaching powder)


40. Fill in the missing data in the following table  : 
 

Salted Obtained from

Name of the Salt

Formula

Base

Acid

Ammonium chloride

NH4Cl

NH4OH

 ---

Copper sulphate

--

--

H2SO4

Sodium chloride

NaCl

NaOH

----

Magnesium nitrate

Mg(NO3)2

---

HNO3

Potassium sulphate

K2SO4

--

--

Calcium nitrate

Ca(NO3)2

Ca(OH)2

--

Solution
 

Salted Obtained from

Name of the Salt

Formula

Base

Acid

Ammonium chloride

NH4Cl

NH4OH

 HCl

Copper sulphate             

CuSO4

Cu(OH)2

H2SO4

Sodium chloride

NaCl

NaOH

HCl

Magnesium nitrate

Mg(NO3)2

Mg(OH)2

HNO3

Potassium sulphate

K2SO4

KOH

H2SO4

Calcium nitrate

Ca(NO3)2

Ca(OH)2

HNO3


41. What are strong and weak acids? In the following list of acids, separate strong acids from weak acids. Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, acetic acid, nitric acid, formic acid, sulphuric acid.
Solution
Strong acids ionise completely in aqueous solutions and provide hydronium ions whereas weak acids are partially ionised and produce a much smaller concentration of H3O+ ions.

  • Strong acids —Hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid
  • Weak acid — Citric acid, acetic acid, formic acid


42. When zinc metal is treated with a dilute solution of a strong acid, a gas is evolved, which is utilised in the hydrogenation of oil. Name the gas evolved. Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved and also write a test to detect the gas formed. 
Solution
When zinc reacts with dilute solution of strong acid, it forms salt and hydrogen gas is evolved.
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2+ H2
The gas burns with a pop sound when a burning splinter is brought near the mouth of the test tube.

Long Answer Questions

43. In the following schematic diagram for the preparation of hydrogen gas as shown in Figure 2.3, what would happen if following changes are made? 

(a) In place of zinc granules, same amount of zinc dust is taken in the test tube
(b) Instead of dilute sulphuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid is taken
(c) In place of zinc, copper turnings are taken
(d) Sodium hydroxide is taken in place of dilute sulphuric acid and the tube is heated.
Solution

(a) Reaction speed increases if zinc dust is used in place of Zinc granules.

(b) If dilute hydrochloric acid is used instead of dilute sulphuric acid, zinc chloride will be formed.
Zn+ 2HCl→ ZnCl2+H2

(c) No reaction will take place if copper is used in place of zinc. This is because copper does not react with dilute acids.

(d) If we use NaOH solution in place of acid, sodium zincate is produced.
Zn+2NaOH→ Na2ZnO2+ H2


44. For making cake, baking powder is taken. If at home your mother uses baking soda instead of baking powder in cake, 
(a) How will it affect the taste of the cake and why?
(b) How can baking soda be converted into baking powder?
(c) What is the role of tartaric acid added to baking soda?
Solution
(a) Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate. On heating, it is converted into sodium carbonate which is bitter to taste.
2NaHCO3  + Heat → Na2Co3 + CO2 + H2O  
(b) By the addition of appropriate amount of tartaric acid baking soda can be converted into baking powder.
(c) The role of tartaric acid is to neutralise sodium carbonate and cake will not taste bitter. 

45. A metal carbonate X on reacting with an acid gives a gas which when passed through a solution Y gives the carbonate back. On the other hand, a gas G that is obtained at anode during electrolysis of brine is passed on dry Y, it gives a compound Z, used for disinfecting drinking water. Identity X, Y, G and Z. 
Solution
Chlorine (G)gas is evolved at anode during electrolysis of brine. When chlorine gas is passed through dry Ca(OH)2(Y) produces bleaching powder (Z) used for disinfecting drinking water.

Since Y and Z are calcium salts, therefore X is also a calcium salt and is calcium carbonate.

  • CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
  • Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O


46. A dry pellet of a common base B, when kept in open absorbs moisture and turns sticky. The compound is also a by–product of chloralkali process. Identify B. What type of reaction occurs when B is treated with an acidic oxide? Write a balanced chemical equation for one such solution.
Solution
NaOH is the byproduct of the chloralkali process. Hence compound B is NaOH. Neutralization process occurs when NaOH is treated with acidic oxide. For example, if NaOH is treated with carbon dioxide, it gives sodium carbonate.
2NaOH + CO2 → Na2CO3 + H2O

47. A sulphate salt of Group 2 element of the Periodic Table is a white, soft substance, which can be moulded into different shapes by making its dough. When this compound is left in open for some time, it becomes a solid mass and cannot be used for moulding purposes. Identify the sulphate salt and why does it show such a behaviour? Give the reaction involved.
Solution
Plaster of Paris is used for making different shapes. Its chemical name is calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4.H2O). Calcium sulphate hemihydrate is soft as the two formula unit of CaSO­4 share one molecule of water. When it is left open for some time, it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and forms gypsum, which is a hard solid mass.


48. Identify the compound X on the basis of the reactions given below. Also, write the name and chemical formulae of A, B and C.
Solution

  1. 2NaOH+ Zn→ NaZnO + H2(g)
  2. NaOH + HCl →NaCl + H2O
  3. NaOH + CH3COOH→ CH3COONa + H2O

X— NaOH (Sodium hydroxide)

A— Na2ZnO2(Sodium zincate)

B— NaCl (Sodium chloride)

C— CH3COONa (Sodium acetate)

NCERT Exemplar Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts Class 10 Science Solutions

Class 10 (Matric) BSEB Bihar Board Solutions All Subjects

BSEB (बिहार विद्यालय परीक्षा समिति) Solutions are available for the students who study in Matric. Bihar Secondary School Examination of Matric Class 10 is conducted by Bihar School Examination Board. There are total 6 subject which need to be studied in matric examination of BSEB. We have provided solutions for all the subjects including Science, Maths, Social Science, Hindi, English and Sanskrit for the students of Class 10. These solutions of the Bihar Board will help the students in understanding the key concepts of the chapter. We have included both objective type questions and subjective questions for the matric examination of BSEB. Bihar Board solutions for Class 10 Matric is very useful in getting good marks in Board examination.


BSEB (बिहार विद्यालय परीक्षा समिति) मैट्रिक में पढ़ने वाले छात्रों के लिए यहाँ पठन सामग्री उपलब्ध हैं। बिहार स्कूल परीक्षा बोर्ड द्वारा मैट्रिक कक्षा 10 की बिहार माध्यमिक विद्यालय परीक्षा आयोजित की जाती है। कुल 6 विषय हैं जिनका BSEB की मैट्रिक परीक्षा में अध्ययन करने की आवश्यकता है। हमने कक्षा 10 के छात्रों के लिए विज्ञान, गणित, सामाजिक विज्ञान, हिंदी, अंग्रेजी और संस्कृत सहित सभी विषयों के Solutions प्रदान किए हैं। बिहार बोर्ड के ये समाधान छात्रों को अध्याय की मुख्य अवधारणाओं को समझने में मदद करेंगे। हमने बीएसईबी की मैट्रिक परीक्षा के लिए वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रकार (Objective Type Questions) के प्रश्न और व्यक्तिपरक प्रश्न (Subjective Type Questions) दोनों को शामिल किया है। बोर्ड परीक्षा में अच्छे अंक प्राप्त करने के लिए कक्षा 10 मैट्रिक के लिए बिहार बोर्ड समाधान बहुत उपयोगी है।

List of Subjects for Bihar Board Matric Solutions

SubjectsBihar Board Solutions
Science (विज्ञान)
Social Science (सामाजिक विज्ञान)
  • Hindi Medium Solutions
Hindi
  • Textbook Solutions
English
  • Textbook Solutions
Mathematics
Sanskrit
  • Textbook Solutions

Solutions for all subjects of Bihar Board Matric Examination has been provided. Yo can also check the below links for more details of the examination like syllabus, Model Paper and Previous Year Question Papers.

  • BSEB Board महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न for Class 10 Matric (Important Questions)
  • BSEB Board बहुवैकल्पिक  प्रश्न for Class 10 Matric (MCQ)
  • Model Papers of Matric Examination Bihar Board Class 10
  • Syllabus of Matric Examination Bihar Board Class 10
  • Old Question Papers of Matric Examination Bihar Board Class 10

These will help you in understanding the pattern of the board examination. It will act as a guide in getting good marks.

BSEB Bihar Board Solutions for Matric Class 10

NCERT Exemplar Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion Solutions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion covers all the important questions and answers as well as advanced level questions. It helps in learning about the balanced and unbalanced forces, Newton's laws of motion i.e. first law of motion, second law of motion and third law of motion.

The NCERT Exemplar solutions for class 9 science is very important in the examination. NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion is provided by our experts. They prepared the best solutions which help the students in understanding the solutions in an easy way. This chapters also covers the other topics like inertia, action and reaction forces, momentum and conversion of momentum.


Chapter Name

Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion

Book Title

NCERT Exemplar for Class 9 Science

Related Study

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion
  • Revision Notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion
  • MCQ for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion
  • Important Questions for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion

Topics Covered

  • MCQ
  • Short Answers Questions
  • Long Answers Questions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion Class 9 Science

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following statement is not correct for an object moving along a straight path in an accelerated motion?

(a) Its speed keeps changing.
(b) Its velocity always changes.
(c) It always goes away from the Earth.
(d) A force is always acting on it.

Solution

(c) It always goes away from the Earth.
Object’s acceleration should be more than the acceleration due to gravity in order to move away from the earth. Only moving along a straight path is not enough to escape from gravity.


2. According to the third law of motion, action and reaction :
(a) Always act on the same body.
(b) Always act on different bodies in opposite directions.
(c) Have same magnitude and directions.
(d) Act on either body at normal to each other.

Solution

(b) Always act on different bodies in opposite directions.

Newton’s third law of motion states that “For every action there is equal and opposite reaction”.


3. A goalkeeper in a game of football pulls his hands backwards after holding the ball shot at the goal. This enables the goalkeeper to :
(a) Exert larger force on the ball.
(b) Reduce the force exerted by the ball on hands.
(c) Increase the rate of change of momentum.
(d) Decrease the rate of change of momentum.

Solution

(b) Reduce the force exerted by the ball on hands.

Pulling hands backwards help the goalkeeper to reduce the momentum of the ball. This in turn reduces the force of the ball exerted on goalkeeper’s hands.


4. The inertia of an object tends to cause the object :
(a) To increase its speed
(b) To decrease its speed
(c) To resist any change in its state of motion
(d) To decelerate due to friction

Solution

(c) To resist any change in its state of motion

Inertia is the property which resists any change in the state of motion of the object. Object remains in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.


5. A passenger in a moving train tosses a coin which falls behind him. It means that motion of the train is.
(a) Accelerated
(b) Uniform
(c) Retarded
(d) Along circular tracks

Solution

(a) Accelerated

The coin would have fallen in the passenger’s hand if the motion of train was uniform. If the motion of the train would have been retarded then the coin would have fallen ahead of him. As the coin falls behind the passenger, the motion of the train is an accelerated one.


6. An object of mass 2 kg is sliding with a constant velocity of 4 ms-1 on a frictionless horizontal table. The force required to keep the object moving with the same velocity is :
(a) 32 N
(b) 0 N
(c) 2 N
(d) 8 N

Solution

(b) 0 N

The friction is opposing the force. Thus no force is required to keep the object in uniform motion.


7. Rocket works on the principle of conservation of :
(a) Mass
(b) Energy
(c) Momentum
(d) Velocity

Solution

(c) Momentum

Velocity of hot gases coming out of rocket provided large momentum in opposite direction. This makes the rocket move upwards. Here the conservation of momentum takes place.


8. A water tanker filled up to 2/3 of its height is moving with a uniform speed. On sudden application of the brake, the water in the tank would :
(a) Move backward
(b) Move forward
(c) Be unaffected
(d) Rise upwards

Solution

(b) Move forward

The water tanker comes to rest on applying the brakes but water will be in motion. This makes the water to come forward.


Short Answer Questions

9. There are three solids made up of aluminum, steel and wood, of the same shape and same volume. Which of them would have highest inertia ?

Solution

As the mass is a measure of inertia, the ball of same shape and size, having more mass than other balls will have highest inertia. Since steel has greatest density and greatest mass, therefore, it has highest inertia.


10. Two balls of the same size but of different materials, rubber and iron are kept on the smooth floor of a moving train. The brakes are applied suddenly to stop the train. Will the balls start rolling? If so, in which direction will they move with the same speed? Give reasons for your answer.

Solution

Yes, both the balls will start rolling due to inertia of and they roll in the direction in which the train was moving. When the brakes are applied, train will come to rest and the balls try to attain rest. Now, because of inertia, the balls remain in motion and they continue to roll. The mass of two balls is not the same, thus the inertia of iron ball is greater than the inertia of the rubber ball. This is the reason why the rubber ball rolls faster than the iron ball.


11. Two identical bullets are fired one by a light rifle and another by a heavy rifle with the same force. Which rifle will hurt the shoulder more and why?

Solution

As both the bullets are said to be identical and are fired with the same force, therefore, as per Newton’s third law of motion, ‘Every action has an equal and opposite reaction’; same force will be applied on both the rifles. As the same amount force is applied on both the rifles, the lighter rifle will move more quickly in the backward direction causing serious injury to the shoulder.


12. A horse continues to apply a force in order to move a cart with a constant speed. Explain, why?

Solution

Once the cart starts moving, the force of friction comes into action. It starts working on the wheels of the cart in a direction opposite to the direction of motion of the cart, the horse should overcome the frictional force. Therefore it continues to apply the force.


13. Suppose a ball of mass m is thrown vertically upward with an initial speed v, its speed decreases continuously till it becomes zero. Thereafter, the ball begins to fall downward and attains the speed v again before striking the ground. It implies that the magnitude of initial and final momentums of the ball is same. Yet, it is not an example of conservation of momentum. Explain, why?

Solution

Law of conservation of momentum is applicable to isolated system. An isolated system is a system that is free from the influence of a net external force that alters the momentum of the system. In the given example, the change in velocity is due to the gravitational force of Earth. This is an external force. Therefore, it is not an example of conservation of momentum.


14. Velocity versus time graph of a ball of mass 50 g rolling on a concrete floor is shown in figure. Calculate the acceleration and frictional force of the floor on the ball.

Solution

Given, m = 50 g, F = ?
The velocity of the ball zero time is 80 ms-1 . It decelerates due to the friction of the floor with itself and comes to rest after 8 s

The negative sign indicates that the frictional force exerted opposes the motion of the ball. Now, using Newton’s relation
F = ma
⇒ F = 0.5 N


15. A truck is then loaded with an object equal to the mass of the truck and the driving force is halved, then how does the acceleration change?

Solution

Force = mass ×acceleration

F = ma

a = F/m

When mass is doubled, force is halved, m becomes 2m and F becomes F/2.

Thus, the new acceleration will be 1/4 th of the old acceleration.


16. Two friends on roller-skates are standing 5 m apart facing each other. One of them throws a ball of 2 kg towards the other, who catches it, how will this activity affect the position of the two? Explain your answer.

Solution

Separation between them will increase. Initially the momentum of both of them are zero. In order to conserve the momentum the one who throws the ball would move backward. The second will experience a net force after catching the ball and therefore, will move backwards that is in the direction of the force.


17. Water sprinkler used for grass lawns begins to rotate as soon as the water is supplied. Explain the principle on which it works.

Solution

The working of sprinkler which rotates as soon as water is supplied to it is based on the thirdlaw of motion. As the water comes out of the nozzle of the sprinkler, an equal and opposite reaction force comes into play which rotates the sprinkler.


Long Answer Questions

18. Using second law of motion, derive the relation between force and acceleration. A bullet of 10 g strikes a sand-bag at a speed of 103 ms–1 and gets embedded after travelling 5 cm. Calculate :
(i) The resistive force exerted by the sand on the bullet.
(ii) The time taken by the bullet to come to rest.

Solution

(ii) v = u + at
⇒ 0 = 103 - 107 t
⇒ 107 t = 103


19. Derive the unit of force using the second law of motion. A force of 5 N produces an acceleration of 8 ms–2 on a mass m1 and an acceleration of 24 ms–2 on a mass m2. What acceleration would the same force provide if both the masses are tied together?

Solution

F = m a = kg m s–2

This unit is also called newton. Its symbol is N.


Acceleration produced in M,


20. What is momentum? Write its SI unit. Interpret force in terms of momentum. Represent the following graphically :
(a) Momentum versus velocity when mass is fixed.
(b) Momentum versus mass when velocity is constant.

Solution

Momentum is the quantity of motion of a moving body. It is measured as product of mass and velocity.

Momentum = mass × velocity

SI unit of momentum is kg m s–1

Force = Rate of change in momentum

(a) Mass is fixed

(b) Velocity is fixed

NCERT Exemplar Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion Class 9 Science Solutions

NCERT Exemplar Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms Solutions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms covers all the important questions and answers as well as advanced level questions. It helps in learning about the biodiversity, classification, living organisms, their types, the classification of organisms, Classification System i.e. two kingdom classification and five kingdom classification, levels or groups and types of cellular organization.

The NCERT Exemplar solutions for class 9 science is very important in the examination. NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms is provided by our experts. They prepared the best solutions which help the students in understanding the solutions in an easy way. This chapters also covers the other topics like body organization, mode of obtaining food, major identification patterns for classification, 5 kingdoms that are protista, monera, fungi, plantae and animalia, binomial nomenclature, five groups of plants which are thallophytes, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordates and Vertebrata


Chapter Name

Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

Book Title

NCERT Exemplar for Class 9 Science

Related Study

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms
  • Revision Notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms
  • MCQ for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms
  • Important Questions for Class 9 Science Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

Topics Covered

  • MCQ
  • Short Answers Questions
  • Long Answers Questions

NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms Class 9 Science

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Find out incorrect sentence :
(a) Protista includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms.
(b) Whittaker considered cell structure, mode and source of nutrition for classifying the organisms in five kingdoms.
(c) Both Monera and Protista may be autotrophic and heterotrophic.
(d) Monerans have well defined nucleus.

Solution

(d) Monerans have well defined nucleus.

Monerans include single-celled prokaryotes, actinomycetes and photosynthetic blue-green algae. They don’t have well-defined nucleus and cell organelles.


2. Which among the following has specialized tissue for conduction of water?
(i) Thallophyta
(ii) Bryophyta
(iii) Pteridophyta
(iv) Gymnosperms
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (iii) and
(iv) (d) (i) and (iv)

Solution

(c) (iii) and (iv)

Thallophytes and Bryophytes don’t have specialized tissues for water conduction whereas Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms have specialized tissues for conduction of water.


3. Which among the following produce seeds?
(a) Thallophyta
(b) Bryophyta
(c) Pteridophyta
(d) Gymnosperms

Solution

(d) Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms are the flowerless plants that produce seeds.


4. Which one is a true fish?
(a) Jellyfish
(b) Starfish
(c) Dogfish
(d) Silverfish

Solution

(c) Dogfish

Jellyfish is a coelenterate, starfish belongs to Echinodermata and silverfish is an Arthropod.


5. Which among the following is exclusively marine?
(a) Porifera
(b) Echinodermata
(c) Mollusca
(d) Pisces

Solution

(b) Echinodermata

Echinodermata are exclusively found in marine environment whereas Porifera, Molluscs and Pisces can be found in both marine and freshwater.


6. Which among the following have open circulatory system?
(i) Arthropoda
(ii) Mollusca
(iii) Annelida
(iv) Coelenterata
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

Solution

(a) (i) and (ii)

Annelida and Coelenterata have closed circulatory system whereas Arthropods and Mollusca have open circulatory system.


7. In which group of animals, coelom is filled with blood?
(a) Arthropoda
(b) Annelida
(c) Nematoda
(d) Echinodermata

Solution

(a) Arthropoda

Annelida, Nematoda and Echinodermata don’t have blood whereas the coelom in Arthropods is filled with blood.


8. Elephantiasis is caused by :
(a) Wuchereria
(b) Pinworm
(c) Planarians
(d) Liver flukes

Solution

(a) Wuchereria

Wuchereria is a human parasite which causes Elephantiasis. Elephantiasis is spread through mosquitos.


9. Which one is the most striking or (common) character of the vertebrates?
(a) Presence of notochord
(b) Presence of triploblastic condition
(c) Presence of gill pouches
(d) Presence of coelom

Solution

(a) Presence of notochord

Vertebrates and invertebrates have triploblastic condition, gill pouches and coelom but notochord is exclusively present in vertebrates.


10. Which among the following have scales?
(i) Amphibians
(ii) Pisces
(iii) Reptiles
(iv) Mammals
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (ii)

Solution

(c) (ii) and (iii)

Amphibians and mammals do not have scales on their body whereas pisces and reptiles have scales on their body.


11. Find out the false statement :
(a) Ayes are warm blooded, egg laying and have four chambered heart.
(b) Ayes have feather covered body, forelimbs are modified as wing and breathe through lungs.
(c) Most of the mammals are viviparous.
(d) Fishes, amphibians and reptiles are oviparous.

Solution

(d) Fishes, amphibians and reptiles are oviparous.

Some fishes are viviparous but amphibians show external fertilization. Amphibians can neither be kept under oviparous nor be viviparous.


12. Pteridophyta do not have :
(a) Root
(b) Stem
(c) Flowers
(d) Leaves

Solution

(c) Flowers


13. Identify a member of porifera :
(a) Spongilla
(b) Euglena
(c) Penicillium
(d) Hydra

Solution

(a) Spongilla

Euglena is a protozoan. Pencillium is a fungi and hydra is a Coelenterata.


14. Which is not an aquatic animal?
(a) Hydra
(b) Jellyfish
(c) Corals
(d) Filaria

Solution

(d) Filaria

Filaria is a disease caused by Wuchereria.


15. Amphibians do not have the following :
(a) Three chambered heart
(b) Gills or lungs
(c) Scales
(d) Mucus glands

Solution

(c) Scales

Amphibians have a 3 chambered heart. Adults have lungs and tadpoles have gills. Mucus glands are present on the skin of amphibians.


16. Organisms without nucleus and cell organelles belong to :
(i) Fungi
(ii) Protista
(iii) Cyano bacteria
(iv) Archae bacteria
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iii)

Solution

(b) (iii) and (iv)

Cyanobacteria and archaebacteria are prokaryotes and they do not have a well-defined nucleus and cell organelles. Fungi and Protista are Eukaryote which possess cell organelles and nucleus.


17. Which of the following is not a criterion for classification of living organisms?
(a) Body design of the organism
(b) Ability to produce one’s own food
(c) Membrane bound nucleus and cell organelles
(d) Height of the plant

Solution

(d) Height of the plant

Height of a plant is related to bushes and trees which belong of Kingdom Plantae.


18. The feature that is not a characteristic of protochordata?
(a) Presence of notochord
(b) Bilateral symmetry and coelom
(c) Jointed legs
(d) Presence of circulatory system

Solution

(c) Jointed legs

Protochordata are triploblastic with bilaterally symmetric body and coelom. At some stage of life they show notochord and they are marine living.


19. The locomotory organs of Echinodermata are :
(a) Tube feet
(b) Muscular feet
(c) Jointed legs
(d) Parapodia

Solution

(a) Tube feet

Tube feet in Echinodermata help in locomotion and respiration.


20. Corals are :
(a) Poriferans attached to some solid support
(b) Cnidarians that are solitary living
(c) Poriferans present at the sea bed
(d) Cnidarians that live in colonies

Solution

(d) Cnidarians that live in colonies


21. Who introduced the system of scientific nomenclature of organisms?
(a) Robert Whittaker
(b) Carolus Linnaeus
(c) Robert Hooke
(d) Ernst Haeckel

Solution

(b) Carolus Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature which is simplified method of naming organisms. Binomial nomenclature gives each organism a scientific name that has two parts. First part is a Genus and second part is Species.


22. Two chambered heart occurs in :
(a) Crocodiles
(b) Fish
(c) Ayes
(d) Amphibians

Solution

(b) Fish

Amphibians have 3 chambered heart whereas aves and crocodiles have 4 chambered heart.


23. Skeleton is made entirely of cartilage in :
(a) Sharks
(b) Tuna
(c) Rohu
(d) None of these

Solution

(a) Sharks

Sharks are cartilaginous whereas tuna and rohu are bony fishes.


24. One of the following is not an Annelid :
(a) Nereis
(b) Earthworm
(c) Leech
(d) Urchins

Solution

(d) Urchins

Urchins are coelenterates.


25. The book Systema Naturae was written by :
(a) Linnaeus
(b) Haeckel
(c) Whittaker
(d) Robert Brown

Solution

(a) Linnaeus


26. Karl Von Linne was involved with which branch of science?
(a) Morphology
(b) Taxonomy
(c) Physiology
(d) Medicine

Solution

(b) Taxonomy


27. Real organs are absent in :
(a) Mollusca
(b) Coelenterata
(c) Arthropoda
(d) Echinodermata

Solution

(b) Coelenterata

Coelenterates are at the tissue level of organization and thus they lack real organs.


28. Hard calcium carbonate structures are used as skeleton by :
(a) Echinodermata
(b) Protochordata
(c) Arthropoda
(d) Nematoda

Solution

(a) Echinodermata

Echinodermata are exclusively free-living marine animals with spiny skin. They are triploblastic and have a coelomic cavity. They use a unique water-driven tube for moving and also contain calcium carbonate structures which are used as skeletons.


29. Differentiation in segmental fashion occurs in :
(a) Leech
(b) Starfish
(c) Snails
(d) Ascaris

Solution

(a) Leech

Leech belongs to kingdom Annelids and it shows metameric body segmentation.


30. In taxonomic hierarchy family comes between :
(a) Class and Order
(b) Order and Genus
(c) Genus and Species
(d) Division and Class

Solution

(b) Order and Genus


31. 5-Kingdom classification has given by :
(a) Morgan
(b) R. Whittaker
(c) Linnaeus
(d) Haeckel

Solution

(b) R. Whittaker

R. Whittaker proposed 5 kingdom classification which includes Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.


32. Well defined nucleus is absent in :
(a) blue green algae
(b) diatoms
(c) algae
(d) yeast

Solution

(a) blue green algae

Blue-green algae belong to kingdom prokaryotes which do not have well defined nucleus and cell organelles.


33. The ‘Origin of Species’ is written by :
(a) Linnaeus
(b) Darwin
(c) Haeckel
(d) Whittaker

Solution

(b) Darwin


34. Meena and Hari observed an animal in their garden. Hari called it an insect while Meena said it was an earthworm. Choose the character from the following which confirms that it is an insect.
(a) Bilateral symmetrical body
(b) Body with jointed legs
(c) Cylindrical body
(d) Body with little segmentation

Solution

(b) Body with jointed legs

Kingdom Arthropoda has the characteristic feature of body with joined legs and all the insects belong to this kingdom.


Short Answer Questions

35 Write true (T) or false (F) :
(a) Whittaker proposed five kingdom classifications.
(b) Monera is divided into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
(c) Starting from Class, Species comes before the Genus.
(d) Anabaena belongs to the kingdom Monera.
(e) Blue green algae belong to the kingdom Protista.
(f) All prokaryotes are classified under Monera.

Solution

(a) True

(b) True

(c) False

(d) True

(e) False

(f) True


36. Fill in the blanks :
(a) Fungi shows _____ mode of nutrition.
(b) Cell wall of fungi is made up of _____
(c) Association between blue green algae and fungi is called as _____
(d) Chemical nature of chitin is _____
(e) _____ has smallest number of organisms with maximum number of similar characters.
(f) Plants without well differentiated stem, root and leaf are kept in _____
(g) _____ are called as amphibians of the plant kingdom.

Solution

(a) saprophytic,
(b) Chitin,
(c) lichens,
(d) carbohydrates,
(e) Species,
(f) thallophyta,
(g) Bryophytes


37. You are provided with the seeds of gram, wheat, rice, pumpkin, maize and pea. Classify them whether they are monocot or dicot.

Solution

Gram – dicot

Wheat – monocot

Rice – monocot

Pumpkin – dicot

Maize – monocot

Pea – dicot


38. Match items of column A with items of column B.

 

Column A

 

Column B

1.

Naked eye

(a)

Angiosperms

2.

Covered seed

(b)

Gymnosperms

3.

Flagella

(c)

Bryophytes

4.

Marchantia

(d)

Euglena

5.

Marsilea

(e)

Thallophyta

6.

Cladophora

(f)

Pteridophyta

7.

Penicillium

(g)

Fungi

Solution

 

Column A

 

Column B

1.

Naked eye

(a)

Gymnosperms

2.

Covered seed

(b)

Angiosperms

3.

Flagella

(c)

Euglena

4.

Marchantia

(d)

Bryophytes

5.

Marsilea

(e)

Pteridophyta

6.

Cladophora

(f)

Thallophyta

7.

Penicillium

(g)

Fungi


39. Match items of column A with items of column B :

 

Column A

 

Column B

1.

Pore bearing animals

(a)

Arthropoda

2.

Diploblastic

(b)

Coelenterata

3.

Metameric segmentation

(c)

Porifera

4.

Jointed legs

(d)

Echinodermata

5.

Soft bodied animals

(e)

Mollusca

6.

Spiny skinned animals

(f)

Annelida

Solution

 

Column A

 

Column B

1.

Pore bearing animals

(a)

Porifera

2.

Diploblastic

(b)

Coelenterata

3.

Metameric segmentation

(c)

Annelida

4.

Jointed legs

(d)

Arthropoda

5.

Soft bodied animals

(e)

Mollusca

6.

Spiny skinned animals

(f)

Echinodermata


40. Classify the following organisms based on the absence/presence of true coelom (i.e., acoelomate, pseudocoelomate and coelomate) : Spongilla, Sea anemone, Planaria, Liver fluke, Wuchereria, Ascaris, Nereis, Earthworm, Scorpion, Birds, Fishes, Horse.

Solution

Spongilla – Acoelomate,

Sea anemone – Acoelomate

Planaria – Acoelomate,

Liver fluke – Acoelomate

Wuchereria – Pseudocoelomate,

Ascaris – Psudocoelomate

Nereis – Coelomate,

Scorpion – Coelomate

Earthworm – Coelomate,

Birds, Fishes and Horse – Coelomate


41. Endoskeleton of fishes are made up of cartilage and bone; classify the following fishes as cartilagenous or bony : Torpedo, Sting ray, Dog fish, Rohu, Angler fish, Exocoetus.

Solution

Torpedo – Cartilagenous,

Sting ray – Cartilagenous

Dog fish – cartilagenous,

Rohu – Bony

Angler fish – Cartilagenous,

Exocoetus – Bony


42. Classify the following based on number of chambers in their heart :
Rohu, Scoliodon, Frog, Salamander, Flying lizard, King Cobra, Crocodile, Ostrich, Pigeon, Bat, Whale.

Solution

  • Rohu-2 chambered
  • Scoliodon-2 chambered
  • Frog-3 chambered
  • Salamander-3 chambered
  • Flying lizard-3 chambered
  • King Cobra-3 chambered
  • Crocodile-4 chambered
  • Ostrich-4chambered
  • Bat-4chambered
  • Whale-4 chambered


43. Classify Rohu, Scoliodon, Flying lizard, King Cobra, Frog, Salamander, Ostrich, Pigeon, Bat, Crocodile and Whale into the cold blooded/warm blooded animals.

Solution

  • Rohu-Cold Blooded
  • Scolidon-Cold Blooded
  • Flying lizard-Cold Blooded
  • King Cobra-Cold Blooded
  • Frog-Cold Blooded
  • Salamander-Cold Blooded
  • Ostrich-Warm Blooded
  • Pigeon-Warm Blooded
  • Bat-Warm Blooded
  • Crocodile-Cold Blooded
  • Whale-Warm Blooded


44. Name two egg laying mammals.

Solution

Billed platypus and the echidna are two egg-laying mammals


45. Fill in the blanks :
(a) Five kingdom classification of living organisms is given by _____
(b) Basic smallest unit of classification is _____
(c) Prokaryotes are grouped in Kingdom _____
(d) Paramecium is a protista because of its _____
(e) Fungi do not contain _____
(f) A fungus _____ can be seen without microscope.
(g) Common fungi used in preparing the bread is _____
(h) Algae and fungi form symbiotic association called_____

Solution

(a) Robert whittaker,
(b) species,
(c) monera,
(d) eukaryotic unicellular, mobile organisms,
(e) chlorophyll,
(f) mushroom,
(g) yeast,
(h) lichens.


46. Give True (T) and False (F) :
(a) Gymnosperms differ from Angiosperms in having covered seed.
(b) Non-flowering plants are called Cryptogamae.
(c) Bryophytes have conducting tissue.
(d) Funaria is a moss.
(e) Compound leaves are found in many ferns.
(f) Seeds contain embryo.

Solution

(a) False,
(b) True,
(c) False,
(d) True,
(e) True,
(f) True,


47. Fill in the blanks :
(a) Bilateral, dorsiventral symmetry is found in _____
(b) Worms causing disease elephantiasis is _____
(c) Open circulatory system is found in _____ where coelomic cavity is filled with blood.
(d) _____ are known to have pseudocoelom.

Solution

(a) liver fluke,
(b) filarial worm,
(c) anthropods,
(d) Nematodes.


48. Label a, b, c and d given in the figure. Give the function of b.

Solution

(a) Dorsal fin

(b) Caudal fin

(c) Pelvic fin

(d) Pectoral fin

Function of Caudal fin: Caudal fin helps in streamlined movement in water.


49. Fill in the boxes given in figure with appropriate characteristics/plant group (s) :

Solution
(a) Thallophyta,
(b) Without specialized vascular tissue,
(c) Pteridophyta,
(d) Phanerogams,
(e) Bear naked seeds,
(f) Angiosperms,
(g) Have seeds with two cotyledons,
(h) Monocots


Long Answer Questions

50. Write names of few Thallophytes. Draw a labelled diagram of Spirogyra.

    Solution

    Ulva, Spirogvra, Cladophora, Ulothrix, Chara are the some examples of Thallophyta.


    51. Why are Thallophyta, bryophyta and pteridophyta called ‘Cryptogams’ while Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are called ‘phanerogams’? Draw one example of Gymnosperm.

    Solution

    Thallophyta, bryophyta and pteridophyta are called ‘Cryptogams’ because the reproductive organs of plants in all these three group is hidden and plants do not bear flowers or seeds. On the other hand ‘Phanerogams’ are flowering and bear seeds. It includes gymnosperms and angiosperms which have well-differentiated reproductive tissue that finally make seeds. Seeds are the result of the reproductive process. Seeds consist of the embryo along with stored food, which serves for the primary growth of the embryo during germination.


    52. Define the terms and give one example of each :
    (a) Bilateral symmetry
    (b) Coelom
    (c) Triploblastic

    Solution

    (a) Bilateral symmetry: When the body have similar parts fixed around a common central axis. Parts of these animals at any point of radius have similar structure to that of other. The left and the right halves of the body are same in bilateral symmetry. The organisms which possess this type of symmetry are called bilaterally symmetrical organisms, e.g. butterfly, human, crab.

    (b) Coelom: A coelom is fluid-filled body cavity that lies in between the body wall and alimentary canal. It is typically found in multicellular organisms.

    (c) Triploblastic: Triploblastic animals are the animals whose cells body develops from three layers : the outer ectoderm, inner endoderm and the third germinal layer mesoderm which is in between outer ectoderm and the endoderm.
    Example : Tapeworm.


    53. You are given Leech, Nereis, Scolopendra, Prawn and Scorpion; and all have segmented body organisation. Will you classify them in one group? If no, give the important characters based on which you will separate these organisms into different groups.

    Solution

    All the given organisms do not belong to same group. Leech and Nereis belong to phylum annelida because as their body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic. They have elongated and segmented body and bear lateral appendages for locomotion. They have true body cavity. Colopendra, Prawn and Scorpion belong to phylum arthropoda as these are bilaterally symmetrical, segmented animals having jointed legs and an open circulatory system.


    54. Which organism is more complex and evolved among Bacteria, Mushroom and Mango tree. Give reasons.

    Solution

    Among these mango tree is the most complex, second most complex is the mushroom, and the bacteria are the least complex. Bacteria are generally having single cell. They are prokaryotic and some of the simplest life forms on the planet (example : bacteria). But mushroom is more complex than the bacteria. Mushroom is heterotrophic, eukaryotic and simple thallophyte with no tissue systems. Mango tree is eukaryotic, autotrophic and multicellular plant. It is an angiosperm in which seeds are produced inside the fruit and flowers are formed. It is a complete plant.


    55. Differentiate between flying lizard and bird. Draw the diagram.

    Solution

    Flying Lizards

    Birds

    It belongs to group reptiles.

    It belongs to group ayes

    It is cold blooded.

    Birds are warm blooded

    Its body covered with scales.

    It persist on the feet but have outside covering of feathers.

    Flying lizards have three chambered heart.

    Birds have four-chambered heart.

    Teeth are present in all reptiles except in tortoises and turtles.

    Narrow jaws form a horny beak, which is modified for different purpose. Teeth are absent.


    56. Write some common features in cat, rat and bat.

    Solution

    Bat, rat and cat belong to class Mammalia and have following common features :

    1. All are multicellular animals.
    2. All have notochord at some stage of life cycle.
    3. Mammals are warm-blooded animals with four- chambered hearts.
    4. They have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young ones.
    5. Their skin has hairs as well as sweat and oil glands.
    6. All the three mammals given above produce live young ones.
    7. All are heterotrophic in nature.
    8. All have paired gill pouches.


    57. Why do we keep both snake and turtle in the same class?

    Solution

    Both turtle and snake are kept in the same class because they have the following common features:

    1. Both the animals are cold-blooded
    2. They have scales and breathe through lungs
    3. They belong to Reptilia group.
    4. Most of the animals in this group have three- chambered heart except crocodiles which have four chambered heart.
    5. They lay eggs with tough coverings.

    NCERT Exemplar Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms Class 9 Science Solutions